Saturday, July 12, 2014

Sejarah Toyota - Toyota History

Boleh gunakan google translate untuk terjemahan dalam bahasa malaysia. Terima Kasih

Toyota corporate history

The official Toyota history is, like that of most companies, fairly glossy and bare-bones. An article by Konrad Schreier, printed in the Complete Book of Toyota (a bit of a misnomer since the book is mainly a bunch of reprints of gushing, “no criticism allowed” car reviews), brings up a large number of missing pieces - as does The Standard Catalog of Imported Cars.

Sakichi Toyoda, a prolific inventor, created the Toyoda Automatic Loom company based on his groundbreaking designs, one of which was licensed to a British concern for 1 million yen; this money was used to help found Toyota Motor Company, which was supported by the Japanese government partly because of the military applications. The Japanese relied on foreign trucks in the war in Manchuria, but with the Depression, money was scarce. Domestic production would reduce costs, provide jobs, and make the country more independent. By 1936, just after the first successful Toyoda vehicles were produced, Japan demanded that any automakers selling in the country needed to have a majority of stockholders from Japan, along with all officers, and stopped nearly all imports.

Toyoda's car operations were placed in the hands of Kiichiro Toyoda, Sakichi Toyoda’s son; they started experimenting with two cylinder engines at first, but ended up copying the Chevrolet 65-horsepower straight-six, using the same chassis and gearbox with styling copied from the Chrysler Airflow. The first engine was produced in 1934 (the Type A), the first car and truck in 1935 (the Model A1 and G1, respectively), and its second car design in 1936 (the model AA). In 1937, Toyota Motor Company was split off.

From 1936 to 1943, only 1,7,57 cars were made – 1,404 sedans and 353 phaetons (model AB), but Toyoda found more success building trucks and busses. The Toyota KB, a 4x4 produced starting in 1941, was a two-ton truck similar to the prewar KC; it had a loading capacity of 1.5 tons and could run up to about 43 mph. The GB was based on the peacetime, 1.5 ton G1 truck, which in turn was based on the Model A1 cars. (From globalspec).

The first Toyoda truck was roughly a one-ton to one and a half-ton design, conventional in nature, using (after 1936) an overhead valve six-cylinder engine that appears to have been a clone of the Chevrolet engine of the time: indeed, a large number of parts were interchangeable, and Toyoda trucks captured in the war were serviced by the Allies with Chevrolet components. There was also a forty-horsepower four cylinder model, very similar to the six cylinder in design but rather

An era of rapid expansion: post-war Toyota history 

In December 1945, Toyota was given permission by the United States military to startup up peacetime production. Toyota Motor Corporation had learned from the American War Department’s industrial training program, which worked on process improvement and employee development; the program, abandoned in 1945 by the United States, lived on in Japan as Taiichi Ohno built kaizen and lean manufacturing around it. (From globalspec).

After World War II, Toyota was kept busy making trucks, but by 1947 it began making the Model SA, called the Toyopet, a name to stay with Toyota for decades, albeit attached to different cars. The Toyopet was not powerful and had a low top speed – 55 mph from a 27 horsepower engine – but it was designed to be cheap, and to handle the rough roads of postwar Japan. In the five years the SA Toyopet was made, 215 were made. The SD may have been more successful; this taxi version saw 194 copies in just two years. The SF Toyopet was the first truly popular Toyota car, with a modified engine (still putting out 27 horsepower) and a taxi version. An RH model with a 48 horsepower engine came out shortly after By 1955, Toyota was making 8,400 cars per year; by 1965, 600,000 cars per year.

In addition to all these cars, Toyota started producing a civilian truck named the Land Cruiser. Styled like Jeeps, the original Land Cruisers were, according to Schreier, based heavily on the legendary Dodge half-ton weapons carrier as well as the Bantam (predecessor of the Jeep) They used a bigger engine than the Jeep (their Chevrolet-clone six) and a size and configuration more like the Dodge weapons carrier, whose capacity it shares (one half ton).

Starting in 1955, Toyota produced its first luxury car, the Crown, powered by a four cylinder, 1.5-liter engine with a three-speed column shift, followed by the 1-liter Corona; only 700 cars per month were made in 1955, but this rose to 11,750 in 1958, and

Modern times

Toyota instituted a three year, 36,000 mile bumper to bumper warranty starting in 1988, the same year the first Toyota-owned American factory started producing Camrys in Kentucky, to join the Corollas built in California. In 1999, Toyota Motor Corporation started listing its shares under the symbol TM on the New York Stock Exchange.

Scion was begin in the early 2000s, starting with three cars based off the platform of the old Echo (but brought up to date and refined), with two engines - a small one for the xA and xB, and a 2.4 with an added 50 or so horsepower for the sporty tC. Scion sales were immediately strong in the early-introduction states, leading to a nationwide (United States) launch that, with very little advertising, was still remarkably successful. Like most cars aimed at younger people, the Scions did not attract the younger buyers Toyota was hoping for, at least not in as large numbers as they wanted; but it still brought in a more youthful mix than Toyota or Lexus. Analysts suggested that Scion was brought in mainly because Toyota buyers were growing older, on average, with new Toyotas meant to attract younger audiences (MR2, Celica, Matrix) largely failing to achieve the goal of transforming Toyota's image as a vendor of dull but reliable and comfortable Camrys and Corollas.

Today, Toyota is one of the world's largest manufacturers of automobiles in both unit sales and in net sales. In the United States, Toyota has roughly double the sales of Honda and is battling GM and Ford for #1. It produces over 5.5 million vehicles per year, equivalent to one every six seconds. Toyota has tried, partly through sponsorship of numerous events, participation in many racing venues (including NASCAR), public relations around its (largely nonunion and Southern) American assembly plants, and other means, to position itself as just another American company, though no Americans appear to participate in serious decision-making at the Japan headquarters.

While German automakers tend to use symbols and numbers, and Americans tend to throw away names frequently, Toyota sticks by a name as long as a car is successful, and doesn't toss names onto cars that don't fit them. The Land Cruiser started in 1950; the Corolla in 1966; the Celica in 1970; the Camry in 1983; the 4Runner in 1984. Notable "dropped" names include the Corona (with its tendency to die from severe rust), Cressida (dropped for the introduction of Lexus in the US), unpopular pickups (T100, HiLux, Compact Pickup), and minivans (Van, Previa).

Mergers and acquisitions

In 1966, Toyota acquired Hino, which built trucks; commercial trucks from Toyota still carry the Hino name. Hino is currently gaining in popularity in Europe, and is the sales leader for medium and heavy-duty diesel trucks in Japan. After building its first truck as far back as 1913 (when it was part of Tokyo Gas), what had been the truck division of Tokyo Gas (and which was now called Diesel Motor Industry Company) split off its commercial truck and diesel engine division into Hino; the remaining part of the company would become Isuzu. Hino did build standard cars for a time, using designs licensed from Renault, but stopped in 1967 to concentrate on heavy trucks (and avoid competing with the rest of Toyota). Hino currently makes a wide variety of heavy trucks and buses, and was involved in designing and/or producing the Tacoma, T100, 4Runner (HiLux Surf), Sequoia, and Tundra.

In 1967, Toyota took control of Daihatsu (founded in 1907 as Hatsudoki Seizo Co., Ltd), but Toyota did not actually buy the whole company until 1999. Daihatsu sold cars in the US from 1988 to 1992, with their Charade and Rocky making almost no impact; when Toyota bought into the company, it made a three-wheeled car and military four-wheel-drive vehicles. Daihatsu sold vehicles based on Toyotas, along, possibly, with its own designs; their small cars and four wheel drive vehicles have a following. Daihatsu supplies vehicles and major components to other automakers, and appears to be popular in South America.

Denso was not acquired, but was simply spun off of Toyota after World War II; it was once Toyota’s electrical component division. It currently is a roughly $26 billion business with over 100,000 employees and over 170 subsidiaries, selling parts to many major automakers including American companies.

Toyota Motor Corporation today

In April 2002, Toyota adopted the 2010 Global Vision, a vision for meeting mobility needs in a way that respects the environment and all people. Four key themes based on trends seen as developing from 2020 to around 2030 are:

    Toward a recycle-oriented society
    Toward the age of IT and ubiquitous networks
    Toward a mature society (the decline of nationalism and war)
    Toward motorization on a global scale (societies with little private transport gaining more)

These are linked to the pursuit of a new global image for Toyota with four key components: kind to the earth, comfort of life, excitement for the world, and respect for all people. Whether Toyota lives up to that is a matter for debate.
Who runs Toyota now?

In 2009, Akio Toyoda took control of Toyota as President. Son of Shoichiro Toyoda, Akio Toyoda helped to get Toyota out of a Chinese joint venture gone bad and into a deal with China FAW Group; started a Web-based retailing venture in Japan; and is currently executive vice president in charge of purchasing, quality, product management, IT, and transport. Akio, born in 1957, had talked about taking the company beyond its Japanese roots, and emphasized styling and performance in the company’s vehicles, before the 2008-09 downturn. Since then, he has emphasized returning to Toyota’s roots and giving up its drive for market share.

In 2007:

    Hiroshi Okuda, Chairman. Born in 1933 - about the same time as Toyota itself - Hiroshi Okuda has been a member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1982, and has been the Chairman of the Board since 1999. Mr. Okuda was the president of Toyota from 1995 to 1999, and is also a director of KDDI Corporation. Hiroshi Okuda joined Toyota in 1955, at about the time of the company's entrance to the United States market. He mainly worked in Toyota's international operations, and oversaw preparation of manufacturing plants in North America. He graduated from Hitostubashi University with a degree in business, and has a black belt in judo.
    Fujio Cho, President. Born in 1937 - not long after Toyota itself - Fujio Cho helped to speed Toyota's decision-making but cutting the number of board members in half, appointing three non-Japanese managing officers, and generally streamlining the management structure. He graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1960 and became a production specialist, mentored by none other than Taiichi Ohno. He opened the first Toyota-owned factory in America in 1988. He is a third dan in kendo.
    It is worth noting the martial arts experience of the two top Toyota leaders. Martial arts require discipline, patience, and study; American leaders tend to be lawyers and accountants with experience in obfuscation and penny-watching.

Some past leaders:

    Eiji Toyoda (president, 1967-1982), who kept Toyota on a low profile even as the company rapidly expanded and dramatically increased its quality and its rustproofing capabilities
    Shoichiro Toyoda (president, 1982-1992), who spread Toyota's manufacturing plants through the world and brought Toyota’s technology to the forefront, surpassing Honda and just about every other automaker, while increasing reliability even further

History of Toyota City

Toyota City sprung from Koromo Town, a thriving silkworm center in the late 1800s and early 1900s. As the demand for raw silk fell, the city declined, until in 1934 it invited the newly formed Toyota to center there. The name was changed from Koromo to Toyota in 1959. The population is now 25 times its 1930 level, at 350,000.
Toyota and the environment

Toyota is fairly well known for having the best-designed hybrid-electric car, the Prius, which former Chrysler engineer Evan Boberg claimed in 2004 was the only car that actually saved fuel because of its hybrid design rather than coincidental features (such as lighter weight, efficient tires, and such). But Toyota's commitment goes much further. Their Australian unit's Earth Charter notes four principles:

Contribution towards a prosperous 21st century: Aim for growth that is in harmony with the environment, and to challenge achievement of zero emissions throughout all areas of business activities and set as a challenge the achievement of zero emissions throughout all areas of business activity.
Pursuit of environmental technologies: Pursue all possible environmental technologies, developing and establishing new technologies to enable the environment and economy to coexist harmoniously.
Voluntary actions: Develop a voluntary improvement plan, not only based on thorough preventative measures and compliance laws, but one that addresses environmental issues on the global, national and regional scales, and promotes continuous implementation.
 Working in co-operation with society:Build close and cooperative relationships with a spectrum of individuals and organizations involved in environmental preservation including governments, local municipalities as well as with related companies and industries.



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